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فارسی عربي

A window into multi-ethnic Iranian nation

Iran is an ethnically diverse country with unique cultural characteristics.

Iran is an ethnically diverse country with each ethnic representing unique cultural characteristics. 

Persian or Fars is the largest ethnic group in Iran while different ethnic groups make up more than half of the nation’s population including Kurds, Lurs, Arabs, Baluchs, Turkmen and Azari tribes.

Persians or Fars

Persians or Fars ethnic group and their culture dominate the Iranian population. They occupy major urban areas such as Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad, Yazd and Shiraz.

The official language in Iran is Persian also known as Farsi. It is the first language for Persians, and ethnic minorities use it as a second language.


Azari is Iran’s largest ethnic minority which is mostly concentrated in the northwest, in East, West Azarbaijan, and Ardabil provinces. These areas are the main Azari settlement but also many of them reside in other provinces of the country.


The residents of Gilan Province are called Gilaks. They have their own language, culture and costume. Their language is Gilaki and they share 4% of Iran's population.

Gilaks reside along the southern and southwestern part of the Caspian Sea and are close to Alborz Mountain ranges.


The Mazanderani or Tabari people are Iranian people who are indigenous to the Caspian region of Iran. They are also referred to as Mazanis for short.

They inhabit the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and are part of the historical region known as Tabaristan.


Most Iranian Kurds reside in the mountainous areas bordering Turkey and Iraq, mainly in the provinces of Kordistan and Kermanshah. West Azarbaijan, Hamedan, Ilam, Northern Khorasan, and Lorestan also have Kurdish communities.

Kurdish women’s clothing with a great variety of colors is one of the most beautiful and happy clothing of the Iranian people.


The Lurs of Iran reside in the west and south-west Iran in the Zagros Mountain regions.

They speak in the Luri dialect which has roots in ancient Middle Persian and got different accents such as Bakhtiari Luri, Mamassani luri, Feyli luri, etc.


Iranian Arab ethnic group reside in Khuzestan and southern provinces.

The Arabians have retained their Arabic language and many of their old customs.

One of the customs, among the Arab ethnic group in the south of Iran, is to drink traditional coffee and serve it from a container called Daleh. This ceremony is performed in places without doors, which is known as Mudif.


The Iranian Baluchis reside mainly in Baluchestan which is a part of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province.


Turkmens or Turkomans are settled mostly in “Turkmen Sahara” located in north Iran, east of Mazandaran Province and north of Khorasan Province – in the neighboring country of Turkmenistan.

Turkmen different tribes include Koklan, Yamut and Teke.

Turkmen horses have worldwide fame. Also, the people of this tribe have special skills and mastery in horse breeding.    

Iranian ethnics have lived peacefully together throughout centuries.

The culture of Iranian people with all their diversity share commonalities that bring them closer to each other.